Highest Point :
Mount Gede is a mountain in the island of Java, Indonesia. Mount Gede is within the scope of Gede Pangrango National Park, which is one of five national parks which was first announced in Indonesia in 1980. This mountain is located in the three districts of Bogor, Cianjur and Sukabumi, with an altitude of 1,000 – 3,000 m . dpl, and is at latitude 106 ° 51 ‘- 107 ° 02’ east and 64 ° 1 ‘- 65 ° 1 LS. The average temperature at the summit of Mount Gede is 18 ° C and at night the peak temperature is around 5 ° C, with an average rainfall of 3,600 mm / year.
Litografi in 1828 oleh A. J. Bik which describe Mount Gede
Mount Gede is covered by mountain forests, which include the submontana, montane, and subalpine zones around its peak. Mountain forest in this region is one of the most rich types of flora in Indonesia, even in the Malesia region.
Object of research
Recorded in 1819, C.G.C. Reinwardt as the first person to climb Mount Gede, then followed by F.W. Junghuhn (1839-1861), J.E. Teijsmann (1839), A.R. Wallace (1861), S.H. Koorders (1890), M. Treub (1891), W.M. Docters van Leeuwen (1911); and C.G.G.J. van Steenis (1920-1952) has made a collection of plants as the basis for the preparation of The Mountain Flora of Java published in 1972.
Gunung Gede also has a diversity of ecosystems comprising submontana forest formations, montane, subalpi; as well as lake, swamp, and savanna ecosystems. Mount Gede is famous for many species of birds as many as 251 species of 450 species found in Java. Some of them are rare birds, namely Javanese eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi) and Javanese pyre (Otus angelinae).
Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park was established by UNESCO as Biosphere Reserve in 1977, and as Sister Park with State Park
Mount Gede and Gede Pangrango National Park is also an interesting natural attractions and visited by many tourists both domestically and internationally.
Some interesting locations / objects to visit
Topography and volcanology
As the name suggests, this national park has two twin peaks, namely the summit of Gede (2,958 m asl) and the peak of Pangrango (3,019 m asl). The two peaks were connected by a saddle-like mountain gang at an altitude of 1,400 m above sea level, known as the Badger Cage. Mount Pangrango is higher, has a relatively smooth peak cones, typically a relatively young mountain of his age. Gunung Gede is lower, but more active, with four active craters namely Ratu Crater, Wadon Crater, Lanang Crater, and New Crater.
The summit of Mount Gede lies on a new cliff or crater, but it is no longer intact because it has been destroyed by repeated volcanic eruptions. The older one is the ridge known as Mount Gumuruh (2,929 m asl); the craters and the summit of Mount Gede which is now located on the former crater of the old Gumuruh Mountain which has become extinct. Between Gede Mountain and Gumuruh Mountain is located in the valley of the plateau named Suryakancana Square (2,750 m asl), which is full of covered by beautiful edelweiss of Java.
There are two climates: the dry season from June to October and the rainy season from November to April. During January to February, the rain falls with strong winds and occurs quite frequently, making it dangerous for climbing. Rain also falls during the dry season, causing the TNGP area to have an average rainfall of 4,000 mm annually. Average temperature at Cibodas 23 ° C.
This national park is mainly known for its rich mountainous mountainous flora. As an illustration, throughout the CA Cibodas-Gede area (now part of the National Park), at an altitude of 1,500 m asl to the summit of Gede and Pangrango, recorded no less than 870 species of flowering plants and 150 species of ferns. Types of orchids carry up to 200 species throughout the Park.
Van Steenis further notes that of 68 rare mountain species known only in Java alone, 9 of them are recorded only from Mount Gede, and 6 of 9 species are endemic to Java.
Javanese edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica) that grows abundantly in Suryakancana Square is very popular among mountain climbers and nature lovers, making it a mascot of this national park. However, the Javanese endemic and somewhat rarely encountered is actually a close relative, Anaphalis maxima; in TNGGP was only found in G. Pangrango near the Rhino Stall . Several other endemic species found in this region, among them, are a kind of uwi Dioscorea madiunensis; a kind of jemang Daemonorops rubra; pinanga green pinanga javana; a type of cardamomAmomum pseudofoetens; and many more.
Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park has a fairly high number of animal species, especially in lowland forest zone. Some of the rare, endemic or endangered species, among them, are the Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch), the surili (Presbytis comata), the ajag (Cuon alpinus), the leopard (Panthera pardus), the slaveek Melogale orientalis, mountain Crocidura orientalis, Glischropus javanus bats and Otomops formosus, a kind of flying squirrel Hylopetes bartelsi, two types of Kadarsanomys sodyidan Pithecheir melanurus rats. Some species of birds such as Javanese eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi), hoop hills Phodilus badius, Otepa angelinae jellyfish, mountain peaks Caprimulgus pulchellus, swalet mountain Collocalia vulcanorum, trigger Reinwardtipicus validus, jago Cochoa azurea, anis forest Zoothera andromedae, and some other species. A rarely possible mountain of Pseudoxenodon inornatus snakes is also possible here; as well as some rare amphibians such as the red frog (Leptophryne borbonica), and a kind of ciliated hypophyte hypocyaneus.
Other animals that are commonly encountered include kra monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), monkeys (Trachypithecus auratus), skulls (Mydaus javanensis), root squirrel (Tupaia gis), kekes squirrel (T. javanica), pig rats (Hylomys suillus), black jelarang (Ratufa bicolor), squirrel-striped soil (Lariscus insignis), Javanese jaggers (Tragulus javanicus) and others. Altogether, more than 100 species of mammals and lk. 250 species of birds.
Cooperation and collaboration
Some of the TNGGP cooperation programs with its partners, among them: