Bogor Botanical Gardens is one of the oldest botanical gardens created in 1817 which has a role in initiating the development of botanical science, scientific exchange, and the relationship between nature and culture, especially in tropical Asia. Bogor Botanical Gardens have a role in conservation, research, education, and tourism. Bogor Botanical Gardens provides environmental services by creating several natural habitats for many organisms, and is categorized as a Cultural Landscape.
Located in the administrative area of Bogor City, West Java Province, Indonesia, with an area of 75.4 hectares, in general has a relatively flat and slightly bumpy topography, is located at 260 meters above sea level and is right in the heart of Bogor.
Prof. Caspar Georg Karl Reinwardt was the founder and first leader of the Bogor Botanical Gardens. The establishment of the Bogor Botanical Gardens can be said to have started the development of science in Indonesia. From this was born several other scientific institutions, such as the Bibliotheca Bogoriensis (1842), Herbarium Bogoriense (1844), Cibodas Botanical Garden (1860), the Treub Laboratory (1884), and the Museum and Zoology Laboratory (1894).
Prof. Caspar Georg Karl Reinwardt is a German national and good friends with Abner who moved to the Netherlands and became a botanist and chemist. He was then appointed minister of agriculture, art and science in Java and beyond. He was interested in investigating various plants used for medicine. He decided to collect all these plants in a botanical garden in the city of Bogor, then called Buitenzorg.
But the idea of establishing a botanical garden originated from a biologist namely Abner who wrote a letter to the Governor General G.A.G.Ph.Van Der Capellen. The letter revealed his desire to ask for a plot of land to be used as a useful plant garden, a place for teacher education, and a collection of plants for the development of other gardens.
On May 18, 1817, Governor General Godert Alexander Gerard Philip van der Capellen formally established the Bogor Botanical Gardens under the name 'Lands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg. Its establishment was begun by planting the first hoe swing in Bogor as a sign of the construction of the garden, whose implementation was led by Reinwardt himself, assisted by James Hooper and W. Kent (from the famous Kew Botanic Gardens in Richmond, England).
Around 47 hectares of land around the Bogor Palace were used as the first land for botanical gardens. Reinwardt became his first director from 1817 to 1822. He used this opportunity to collect plants and seeds from other parts of the archipelago. Bogor soon became the center of agricultural and horticultural development in Indonesia. At present it is estimated that around 900 live plants are planted in this garden.
In the Dutch Era (1817-1945 and 1948-1952), it was the "Golden Age" for research, and in the early 1900s with the discovery of auxins and mycorrhizae, then innovations in economic botany resulted in an increase in wealth for the Dutch Government with the development of plantations for agro-industry for exotic species namely oil palm, rubber, coffee, tea, quinine and tobacco.
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